Marriage at work (10) Conclusions

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III. 1. Summary of Findings

In Part 1, we argued for what might be described as a “Soft-Complementarian” interpretation of Ephesians 5:21-33.  We argued that:

The household code needs to be understood within its immediate context – the letter to the Ephesians.  This pushes us towards a trans-cultural application of the passage because the wider context is that the church is a witness to God’s great eschatological plan to bring order and unity in, through and for Christ.  Marriage is modelled on and is a picture of Christ’s relationship to his church.

Husbands and wives are called to “mutual submission.”  We submit to one another in Christ.  Husbands are called to love their wives and to offer costly sacrificial service to them.  This would have been counter-cultural for Paul’s readers.

Headship refers to authority and leadership.  There is order within marriage.  Although wives know that they are of equal value to their husbands, they are to submit voluntarily as part of their worship to God.  This is counter cultural for modern readers.

The primary focus in Ephesians 5 is on unity.  Husbands and wives are “one flesh.”  They should be working towards becoming of one mind on all matters within their marriage.

In Part 2, we considered the practical outworking of this interpretation with regard to three scenarios.  We argued that whilst there is order within marriage, this does not mean that the husband is responsible for making every decision.  However, he should, by his example, set the tone of the relationship and create a framework for godly decision making.  Headship and submission mean that husbands and wives are not working towards independent goals.  Rather, they are working towards a single purpose; the fulfilment of God’s creation purposes as expressed in the Cultural Mandate and the Great Commission.  Therefore, where it serves this purpose, it is not only permissible but is right and proper that a godly wife will enter the workplace and even become the lead earner in the marriage.  We saw that godly marriages are based on love and involve voluntary submission.  Such marriages should not be abusive or controlling but should instead provide protection against outside abuse and control.

III.2. Concluding Remarks

I used to assume that a Christian marriage will be a faithful witness to Christ if the order of husband as head and wife submitting could clearly be seen.  Now I would say that whilst those components remain vital to a healthy marriage, the actual witness to others is more to be seen in the unity of mind and purpose of a Christian couple as they are now “one flesh.”

I hope you’ve found this series of articles helpful – you can read them all together via this e-book available from the publications page

For those wanting to pursue the subject further and looking for a reading list, here’s my bibliography

Lexicons, Grammar Books and Textual Aids

Brown F, S. Driver and C Briggs. The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English             Lexicon.  Reprinted. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2004.

Danker, Frederick William. A Greek Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early            Christian Literature (BDAG).  Revised.  3rd Edition.  Chicago:  University of             Chicago Press, 2000.

Lampe, G.W.H. A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: OUP, 1961.

Liddell George Henry and Robert Scott.  A Greek-English Lexicon.  Reprinted.             Revised and Augmented by Henry Stuart Jones and Robert McKenzie.             Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Metzger, Bruce M.  A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament.  Reprinted. 2ed. Stuttgart: Deutsch Biblelgesellschaft, 2000.

Joüon, Paul. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew.  Translated and Revised by T.             Muraoka.Rome: Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblico, 2006.

Koehler, Ludwig and Walter Baumgartner. The Hebrew & Aramaic Lexicon of the             Old Testament.  Revised by Walter Baumgartner and Johna Jackob Stamm.              Translated and edited by M.E.J. Richardson.   5 vols.  Leiden, The             Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 1994.

Wallace, Daniel B. Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, An Exegetical Syntax of the            New Testament.  Grand Rapids, Michigan:  Zondervan, 1996.

Commentaries on Ephesians

Abbott, T. K. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary On The Epistles to the             Ephesians and to the Colossians.  International Critical Commentary.             Edinburgh. T&T Clarke, 1897.

Barth, Markus.  Ephesians 4-6.  The Anchor Bible.  New York: Doubleday, 1979.

Beare Francis W and Theodore O. Wedel.  “The Epistle to the Ephesians Introduction             and Exegesis.”  Pages 595 – 749 in The Interpreters’ Bible.  Edited by George             Arthur Buttrick.  Volume X. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon, 1953.

Best, Ernest. Ephesians. International Critical Commentary.  Edinburgh: T&T Clark,             1990.

Bruce, F.F.  The Epistle to the Ephesians.  A Verse by Verse Exposition.  London:             Pickering & Inglis, 1961.

Calvin, John.  Sermons on Ephesians.  Revised and Reprinted.  Translated by Arthur             Golding.  Edinburgh:  Banner of Truth, 1979.

Gore, Charles.  St Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians.  A Practical Exposition.  London:             John Murray, 1902.

Hoehner, Harold W. Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary.  Grand Rapids, Mich.:             Baker Academic, 2002.

Lincoln, Andrew T. Ephesians.  Word Biblical Commentary 42. Dallas, Texas: Word,             1990.

Liefeld, Walter L. Ephesians.  The IVP New Testament Commentary Series. Downers             Grove, Illinois: Inter Varsity Press, 1997.

Martin, Ralph P. Ephesians, Colossians, and Philemon.  Interpretation. Louiseville,             Kentucky: John Knox, 1991. 

Mitton, Leslie C.  Ephesians.  New Century Bible.  London:  Oliphants, 1976.

O’Brien, Peter.  The Letter to the Ephesians.  The Pillar New Testament Commentary.              Leicester, Apollos: 1999.

Perkins, Pheme. “The Letter to the Ephesians, Commentary and Reflections.”  Pages             349-466 in The New Interpreters’ Bible.  Volume XI. Edited by Leander             Keck. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon, 2000.

Robinson, J Armitage.  St Paul’s Epistle to the Ephesians.  London:  Macmillan and            Co.  1922.

Schnackenburg, Rudolph. The Epistle to the Ephesians: A Commentary.  Translated             by Helen Heron.  Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1991.

Simpson, E.K. “Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians.” Pages 9 – 158 in E.K.            Simpson and F.F. Bruce.  The Epistles of Paul to the Ephesians and to the             Colossians. The New London Commentary on the New Testament. London:             Marshall, Morgan and Scott, 1957.

Snodgrass, Klyne.  Ephesians.  The NIV Application Commentary.  Grand Rapids,            Mich.:  Zondervan, 1996.

Stott, John R.W.  The Message of Ephesians.  Bible Speaks Today. Repr. Leicester:             Inter Varsity Press, 1999.

Commentaries on Genesis

Blocher, Henri.  In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis. Nottingham:             Inter-Varsity Press, 1984.

Brueggeman, Walter. Genesis. Interpretation. Atlanta, Georgia: John Knox, 1982.

Calvin, John.  Commentaries on the First Book of Moses called Genesis.  Calvin’s             Commentaries.  Vol 1. Translated by John King.  Rpr.  Grand Rapids, Mich.:            Baker Academic, 1999.

Collins, C. John. Genesis 1-4: A Linguistic, Literary and Theological Commentary.              Philipsburg, New Jersey: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2006.

Gunkel, Hermann.  Genesis. Mercer Library of Biblical Studies. Translated by Mark             E. Biddle. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1997.

Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis Chapters 1-17.  The New International             Commentary on the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans,             1990.

Murphy, James G. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Genesis             with a New Translation. Eugene, OR.: WIPF & Stock, 1998.

Sarna, Nahum M. Genesis.  The JPS Torah Commentary.  Philadelphia: The Jewish             Publication Society, 1989.

Von Rad, Gerhard.  Genesis. Old Testament Library. Translated by John H Marks.             Revised. London: SCM, 1972.

Waltke, Bruce K. with Cathi J. Fredricks. Genesis: a Commentary.  Grand Rapids,             Michigan: Zondervan, 2001.

Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 1-15.  Word Biblical Commentary 1. Dallas, Tex.:             Word, 1987.

Westermann, Claus. Genesis 1-11: A Commentary.  Translated by John J. Scullion             S.J. London: SPCK, 1984.

Commentaries on Titus

Fairbairn, Patrick.  1&2 Timothy and Titus.  Geneva Series of Commentaries.              Edinburgh, Banner of Truth, 2002.

Marshall, I. Howard. The Pastoral Epistles.  The International Critical Commentary.             Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1999.

Mounce, William D. Pastoral Epistles.  Word Biblical Commentary 46.  Nashville             Tenn.: Nelson, 2000.

Oden. Thomas C. First and Second Timothy and Titus. Interpretation.  Louiseville,            Kentucky: John Knox, 1989.

Towner, Philip H. 1-2 Timothy & Titus.  The IVP New Testament Commentary             Series.  Leicester: Inter Varsity Press, 1994.

Stott, John R.W.  The Message of 1 Timothy & Titus.  Leicester: Inter Varsity Press:             1996.

Commentaries on Proverbs

Perdue, Leo G. Proverbs.  Interpretation. Louisville, Kentucky: John Knox, 2000.

Longman, Tremper, III.  Proverbs.  Baker Commentary on the Old Testament,             Wisdom and Psalms. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2006.

Murphy, Roland.  Proverbs.  Word Biblical Commentary, 22. Nashville: Nelson,             1998.

Toy, Crawford H. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Proverbs.              Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1899.

Waltke, Bruce.  The Book of Proverbs Chapters 15-31.  The New International             Commentary on the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans,             2005.

Commentaries on Galatians

Fung,  Ronald  K. The Epistle to the Galatians.  The New International Commentary            on the New Testament.  Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Michigan: 1988.

Hendricksen, William.  Galatians.  The Geneva Series of Commentaries.  London:              Banner of Truth, 1968.

Longenecker, Richard N. Galatians.  Word Biblical Commentary, 41. Dallas, Texas:             Word, 1990.

Luther, Martin.  Commentary on Galatians:  Modern English Edition.  Abridged.             Grand Rapids, MI.: Fleming H. Revell, 1998.

Morris, Leon.  Galatians: Paul’s Charter of Christian Freedom, Leicester: Inter             Varsity Press, 1996.

Literature About the Role of Women in Society (History and Sociology)

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. Roman Women: Their History and Habits. Reprinted. London: The             Bodley Head, 1963.

Baubérot, Jean, “The Protestant Woman.”  Pages 198 – 212 in A History of Women in             the West Volume IV: Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War.              Edited by Geneviève Frasse and Michelle Perrot. Translated by Arthur             Goldhammer.  Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Berger, Michael S.  “Maimonides on Sex and Marriage.”  Pages 149 – 191 in  

Marriage, Sex, and Family in Judaism.  Edited By Michael J Broyde and

Michael Ausebel.  Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

Black, Clementina. “Introduction.” Pages 1 – 15 in Married Women’s Work. Edited

by Clementina Black. 1915.  Repr. London, Virago Press, 1983.

Black, Clementina.  “London.” Pages 16 – 104 in Married Women’s Work. Edited by            Clementina Black. 1915.  Repr. London, Virago Press, 1983.

Blumenthal, David. “The Images of Women in the Hebrew Bible.”  Pages 15 – 60 in             Marriage, Sex, and Family in Judaism.  Edited By Michael J Broyde and             Michael Ausebel.  Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

De Beavoir, The Second Sex, 1949.  Repr.  Translated and Edited by H. M. Parshley,             Hammondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin, 1984.

De Giorgio, Michela.  “The Catholic Model.” Pages 166 – 197 in A History of Women            in the West Volume IV: Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War.              Edited by Geneviève Frasse and Michelle Perrot.  Translated by Joan Bond            Sax. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Fraisse, Geneviève. “A Philosphical History of Sexual Difference.” Pages 48 – 79 in

A History of Women in the West Volume IV: Emerging Feminism from             Revolution to World War.  Edited by Geneviève Fraisse and Michelle Perrot.            Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard             University Press, 1993.

Fraisse, Geneviève  and Michelle Perrott. “Orders and Liberties.” Pages 1 – 8 in  A             History of Women  in the West Volume IV: Emerging Feminism from             Revolution to World War.  Edited by Geneviève Frasse and Michelle Perrot.            Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard             University Press, 1993.

Fraisse, Geneviève and Michelle Perrott. “Family Is Women’s Work.” Pages 321-324             in A History of Women in the West Volume IV: Emerging Feminism from             Revolution to World War.  Edited by Geneviève Frasse and Michelle Perrot.              Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard             University Press, 1993.

Gardner, Jane F. Women in Roman Law and Society. Indianapolis: Indianapolis             University Press, 1991.

Green, Nancy L.  “The Making of the Modern Jewish Woman.” Pages 213 – 227 in A             History of Women in the West Volume IV: Emerging Feminism from             Revolution to World War.  Edited by Geneviève Frasse and Michelle Perrot.            Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Grubbs, Judith Evan. Women and the Law in the Roman Empire: A Sourcebook on             Marriage, Divorce and Widowhood. London: Routledge, 2002.

Meyers, Carol. Discovering Eve:  Ancient Israelite Women in Context.  Oxford:              Oxford University Press, 1988.

Prior, Mary.  “Women and the Urban Economy: Oxford 1500-1800.”  Pages 93 – 117             in Women in English Society 1500-1800.  Edited by Mary Prior. Repr.             London: Methuen, 1986.

Scott, Joan W. “The Woman Worker.”  Pages 399 – 427 in A History of Women in the             West Volume IV: Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War.  Edited             by Geneviève Frasse and Michelle Perrot.  Translated by Arthur Goldhammer.             Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993.

L.D “Wage-earning Wives in a slum.”  Pages 114 – 127 in Married Women’s Work.  

Edited by Clementina Black. 1915.  Repr. London, Virago Press, 1983.

Tucker, Ruth A. Women in the Maze.  Questions & Answers on Biblical Equality.              Downers Grove, Ill: Inter-Varsity Press, 1992.

Biblical and Theological Monographs and Background Material.

Arnold, Clinton E.  Ephesians: Power and Magic.  The Concept of Power in

                        Ephesians in Light of its Historical Setting.  Cambridge: Cambridge

                        University Press, 1989.

Ash, Christopher, Marriage: Sex in the Service of God. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press,            2003.

Balch, D.L. Let Wives be Submissive: The Domestic Code in 1 Peter. Chico, CA.:             Scholars Press, 1981.

Carson, D.A. Exegetical Fallacies. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker, 1984.

Carson, D.A.  The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism. Leicester:             Apollos, 1996. 

Cervin, Richard S. “Does Kefalh, mean ‘Source’ or ‘Authority Over’ in Greek             Literature? A Rebuttal.” Trinity Journal 10 (1989): 85-112.

Chrysostom, John.  “Homily XXV: 1 Corinthians xi. 2.” Pages 148 – 156 inJohn              Chrysostom, Homilies on First and Second Corinthians.  The Nicene and             Anti Nicene Fathers.  Vol XII.  Translated by Talbort W. Chambers, Grand             Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1969.

Chrysostom, John. “Homily X: Colossians iii. 18-25.” Pages 303 – 309 in John             Chrysostom, Homilies on Galatians, Ephesians, Phillipians, Colossians,             Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus and Philemon.  The Nicene and Anti Nicene             Fathers.  Vol XIII.  Translated by John A Broadus. Grand Rapids, Mich.:             Eerdmans, 1979.

Grudem, Wayne. “Appendix 1: The Meaning of Kephalē (‘Head’): A Response to

Recent Studies.” Pages 425 – 468 in Recovering Biblical Manhood &

Womanhood.  A Response to Evangelical Feminism.  Edited by John Piper and

Wayne Grudem.  Wheaton, Il.: Crossway, 1991.

Grudem, Wayne. “Does kefalh, mean ‘Source’ or ‘Authority Over’ in Greek             Literature? A Survey of 2,836 Examples.” Trinity Journal 6 (1985): 38 – 59.

Mahaney, Carolyn and Nicole Mahaney Whitacre.  Girl Talk: Mother – Daughter             Conversations on Biblical Womanhood.  Wheaton, Ill.: Crossway, 2005.

Osborne, Grant R. The Hermeneutical Spiral. Downers Grove, Il.: Inter Varsity Press,             1992. 

Sampley, J. Paul. And the Two Shall Become One Flesh. Cambridge: Cambridge             University Press, 1971.

Wolters, Al. The Song of the Valiant Woman: Studies in the Interpretation of             Proverbs 31:10-31.  Carlisle: Paternoster, 2001.

Broadly Egalitarian and Feminist Works

Balswick, Judith K. and Jack O. Balswick, “”Marriage as a Partnership of Equals.”              Pages 448 – 463 in Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity without             Hierarchy. Edited by Ronald W. Pierce, Rebecca Merrill Groothuis and             Gordan D. Fee. Leicester: Apollos, 2004.

Bilezikian, George.  Beyond Sex Roles. What the Bible Says about a Woman’s Place             In Church and Family.  2d Edition.  Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker, 1985.

Browning, Don. “The Problem of Men.” Pages 3 – 12 in Does Christianity Teach

Male Headship?  The Equal-Regard Marriage and Its Critics.   Edited by

David Blankenhorn, Don Browning & Mary Stewart  Van Leeuwen.  Grand

Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004.

Clines, David J. A. What Does Eve Do to Help? And Other Readerly Questions to the                         Old Testament.  Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990.

Dominion, Jack. Marriage, Faith and Love.   London: Fount, 1981.

Dominion, Jack.  Marriage: The Definitive Guide to What makes a marriage Work.             London: Heinemann, 1995.

Evans, Mary J. Woman in the Bible. Exeter: Paternoster, 1983.

Fee, Gordon D. “Male and Female in the New Creation: Galatians 3:26 – 29.”  Pages             172 – 185 in Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity Without             Hierarchy. Edited by Ronald W. Pierce, Rebecca Merrill Groothuis and             Gordon D. Fee. Leicester: Apollos, 2004.

Groothuis, Rebecca Merrill.  “‘Equal in Being, Unequal in Role’: Exploring the             Logic of Woman’s Subordination.”  Pages 301 – 333 in Discovering Biblical             Equality: Complementarity Without Hierarchy. Edited by Ronald W. Pierce,             Rebecca Merrill Groothuis and Gordan D. Fee. Leicester: Apollos, 2004.

Hess, Richard S. “Equality With and Without Innocence.” Pages 79 – 95 in

Discovering Biblical Equality: Complementarity without Hierarchy. Edited by

Ronald W. Pierce, Rebecca Merrill Groothuis and Gordan D. Fee. Leicester:

Apollos, 2004.

Jacobs, Mignon R. Gender, Power and Persuasion.  The Genesis Narratives and             Contemporary Portraits. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2007.

Johnston, Robert K. “Biblical Authority and Interpretation.” Pages 30 – 41 in Woman,            Authority and the Bible.  Edited by  Alvera Mickelsen, Downers Grove, Ill.:             Inter-Varsity Press, 1986.

Keener, Craig S. Paul, Women & Wives:  Marriage and Women’s Ministry in the             Letters of Paul.  Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1992.

Korsak Mary Phil.  “…et Genetrix.” Pages 22 – 31 in Athalya Brenner, Genesis. A             Feminist Companion to the Bible.  Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.

Longenecker Richard N. “Authority, Hierarchy and Leadership Patterns in the Bible.”              Pages 66 – 84 in Woman, Authority and the Bible.  Edited by Alvera             Mickelsen, Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1986.

Marshall, I.H. “Mutual Love and Submission in Marriage: Colossians 3:18 – 19 and             Ephesians 5:21 – 33.”  Pages 186 – 204 in Discovering Biblical Equality:             Complementarity Without Hierarchy. Edited by Ronald W. Pierce, Rebecca             Merrill Groothuis and Gordan D. Fee. Leicester: Apollos, 2004.

Mickelsen, Berkeley and Alvera. ““What Does Kephalē Mean in the New Testament?” Pages 97 – 110 in Woman, Authority and the Bible.  Edited by      Alvera Mickelsen, Downers Grove, Ill.: Inter Varsity Press, 1986.

Nicole, Roger. “Biblical Authority and Feminist Aspirations.” Pages 42 – 50 in

Woman, Authority and the Bible.  Edited by  Alvera Mickelsen, Downers

Grove, Ill.: Inter Varsity Press, 1986.

Tucker, Ruth A. “Response.” Pages 111 – 117 in Woman, Authority and the Bible.              Edited by  Alvera Mickelsen, Downers Grove, Ill.: Inter Varsity Press,

1986.

Van Leeuwen, Mary Stewart.  “Is Equal Regard in the Bible?”  Pages 13 – 22 in Does             Christianity Teach Male Headship?  The Equal-Regard Marriage and Its             Critics.   Edited by David Blankenhorn, Don Browning & Mary Stewart Van             Leeuwen.  Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2004.

Webb, William J. Slaves, Women and Homosexuals (Downers Grove, Illinois: Inter-            Varsity Press), 2001.

Winter, Bruce.  Roman Wives, Roman Widows:  The Appearance of New Women and            the Pauline Communities.  Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2003.

Broadly Complementarian or Hierarchialist Works

Adams, Jay E. Christian Living in the Home. Phillipsburg, New Jersey: Presbyterian             & Reformed, 1972.

Birkett, Kirsten.  The Essence of Feminism. The Modern Beliefs Series. Kingswood,             NSW.: St Matthias Media, 2000.

Foh, Susan T. Women and the Word of God. A Response to Biblical Feminism.              Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1979.

Frame, John. The Doctrine of the Christian Life.  Phillipsburg , New Jersey:             Presbyterian and Reformed, 2008.

James, Sharon. God’s Design for Women: Biblical Womanhood for Today.             Darlington: Evangelical Press, 2002.

Johnson, S Lewis. “Role Distinctions in the Church: Galatians 3:28.” Pages 154 – 164             in Recovering Biblical Manhood & Womanhood.  A Response to Evangelical            Feminism.  Edited by John Piper and Wayne Grudem.  Wheaton, Il.:             Crossway, 1991.

Köstenburg, Andreas and David Wayne Jones. God Marriage and Family: Rebuilding             the Biblical Foundation.  Wheaton Ill.: Crossway, 2004.

Knight, George W. III. “Husbands and Wives as Analogues of Christ and the Church:             Ephesians 5:21 – 33 and Colossians 3:18 – 19.” Pages 165 – 178 in

Recovering Biblical Manhood & Womanhood.  A Response to Evangelical

Feminism. Edited by John Piper and Wayne Grudem.  Wheaton, Il.: Crossway,

1991.

Knight, George W. III. “The Family and the Church: How should Biblical Manhood            and Womanhood Work Out in Practice?” Pages 345 – 357 in Recovering             Biblical Manhood & Womanhood.  A Response to Evangelical Feminism.              Edited by John Piper and Wayne Grudem.  Wheaton, Il.: Crossway, 1991.

Ortlund, Raymond C. “Male – Female Equality and Male Headship: Genesis 1 – 3.”            Pages 95 – 112 in Recovering Biblical Manhood & Womanhood.  A Response             to Evangelical Feminism.  Edited by John Piper and Wayne Grudem.              Wheaton, Il.: Crossway, 1991.

Patterson, Dorothy.  “The High Calling of Wife and Mother in Biblical Perspective.”             Pages 364-377 in Recovering Biblical Manhood & Womanhood.  A Response             to Evangelical Feminism.  Edited by John Piper and Wayne Grudem.              Wheaton, Il.: Crossway, 1991.

Piper, John. “A Vision of Biblical Complementarity: Manhood and Womanhood             Defined According to the Bible.” Pages 31 – 59 in Recovering Biblical             Manhood & Womanhood.  A Response to Evangelical Feminism.  Edited by             John Piper and Wayne Grudem.  Wheaton, Il.: Crossway, 1991.

The Quran. Translated by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem. Oxford: Oxford University Press,             2004.

Wilson, Douglas.  Reforming Marriage.  Moscow, Id..: Canon Press, 2005.

Marriage Courses, Handbooks and Guidance[1]

CPAS. Marriage in Mind: A Comprehensive Resource for Marriage Preparation and             Marriage Growth.  Warwick: CPAS, 1993.

Huggett, Joyce.  Two Into One? – Relating in Christian Marriage.  Leicester:  Inter            Varsity Press, 1981.

Lee  Nicky and Sila. The Marriage Book: How to Build a Lasting Relationship.              London: Alpha, 2000.

Lee  Nicky and Sila. The Marriage Course.  Speakers’ Notes and Presentation Slides             on CD-Rom.  London: Alpha, 2000.

Litvinoff, Sarah. The Relate Guide to Better Relationships.  London:  Vermilion,             1991.

Parsons, Rob and Diane.  Marriage Matters on DVD.  London: Care, 1991.

Literature about domestic abuse and gender violence

Conway, Helen.  Domestic Violence and the Church. Carlisle:  Paternoster, 1998.

Berry, Dawn Bradley.  The Domestic Violence Sourcebook.  Los Angeles, CA.: Lowell             House, 1998.

Heggen, Carolyn Holderread. “Religious Beliefs and Abuse.”  Pages 15 – 27 in

Women, Abuse and the Bible.  Edited by Catherine Clark Kroeger and James

R Beck.  Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1996.

Mooney, Jane. Gender, Violence and the Social Order.  Basingstoke: Macmillan,             2000.

Poling, James Newton.  “Preaching to Perpetrators of Violence” Pages 71 – 82 in             Telling the Truth: Preaching About Sexual and Domestic Violence.  Edited by             John McClure and Nancy J Ramsey.  Clevden, Ohio.: United Church Press,             1998.

Powlinson, David.  Paul Tripp and Edward T Welch.  Domestic Abuse: How to Help.             Phillipsburg, NJ.: Presbytarian and Reformed, 2002.

Scholer, David M. The Evangelical Debate over Biblical Headship.  Pages 28 – 57 in             Women, Abuse and the Bible.  Edited by Catherine Clark Kroeger and James             R Beck.  Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1996.

Translation of Ephesians 5:21-33

21 And you will submita to one another in fear of Christ, 22 wives tob  their own husbands as to the Lord. 23 For a husband is head of his wife as also Christ is head of the Church, he is the saviour of the body. 24 Even so,c as the Church submits to Christ, in the same way the wives [should submit]d to their husbands in everything. 25 Husbands love your wives just as Christ loved the Church and gave himself on behalf of her 26 in order to sanctify her with the cleansing of water by the word 27 so that he might present the glorified church to himself, without spot or wrinkle so that she might be holy and without blemish. 28 In the same way, husbands ought to love their own wives as their own body.  Whoever loves his own wife, loves himself.   29 For no-one ever hated his own body but he nourishes it and cherishes it, just as Christ also does the Church, 30 for we are members of his body. 31 “Because of this, a man will leave his Father and his mother and be united with his wife and the two will become one flesh.” 32 This is a great mystery; and I am[1] speaking about Christ and the Church.  33 So then,e you also, every one of you, each should love his wife in the same way that he loves himself, and the wife ought to fear her husband.

Notes

a  hupotassamenoi is possibly a temporal participle but we have taken it to be a participle of result. This would fit with the flow of consequences seen to result from being filled with the Spirit. Although, syntactically, it could be a participle of means, this would suggest a mechanistic approach to being filled with the Spirit out of keeping with the Pauline emphasis on grace found in the epistle.[2]

b The majority of manuscripts lack the verb “submit” here.  However, it is implicit and supplying it smoothes the reading of the text.

c  The Greek here is alla,, so it could be emphatic[3] as in the sense of “Now” (NIV).  However, more likely it carries an adversative force, referring only to the last clause of the previous verse.[4]

d The words “should submit” once again are absent from the Greek text and included for the sense of flow.

e plen can have a summing up force (e.g. “in any case”).[5]


[1] Or “but I am…” The important thing is that the construction is intended to emphasise that Paul himself is drawing this conclusion (cf. Matt 5).  It is not intended to show contrast with what has gone before.

[2] On this point, see, Daniel B Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament  (Grand Rapids, Michigan:  Zondervan, 1996), 639.

[3] BDAG, 45b.

[4] Andrew T Lincoln, Ephesians (WBC42. Dallas, Texas: Word, 1990), 372. 

[5] BDAG, 826b.

Genesis 2 &3 Translation

V.5. 1 Genesis 2:15-25

15 Then Yahweh God took the man and placed him in the Garden of Eden to tend and care for it 16 Yahweh God commanded the man saying; “You may freelya eat from all the trees of the garden 17 but you may not eat from the tree of knowledge of Good and Evil, because on the day you eat from it you will surely die.”

18 Then Yahweh God said “It is not good for the man to be alone.  I will make for him a helper who compliments him.”b  19 Then Yahweh God formed from the ground all the domestic animalsc and all the birds of the air and brought them to the man to see what he would call them and whatever the man called the living creatures, that was their name.  20The man called and named all the wild animals, all the birds of the air and all the domestic animals but there wasn’t found a helper for man who complimented him.  21 So Yahweh God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man and he slept.  Then he took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh in its place.  22 Then Yahweh God formed the rib which he had taken from the man into woman and brought her to the man.  23 Then the man said “At last this is bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh.  This one is called woman because this one has been taken from man.”  24 Because of this, a man will forsaked his father and mother and cling to his wife and they will become one flesh. 

25 Now the two of them were naked, the man and the woman, and they were not embarrassed.

V. 5.2 Genesis 3:16-17

16 To the woman He said “I will greatly increase your toil and your pregnancy, in pain you will bear children and you will long for your husband but he will rule over you.”

17 Then to the man he said “Because you listened to the voice of your wife…”

Notes

a“Freely” following Wenham’s translation of אכל תאכל. The infinitive absolute followed by the second person singular infinitive providing emphasis on the “permissive nuance” (alternatively “You may surely eat”).[1]

b עזר כנגדו As Wenham comments, “The compound prepositional phrase ‘matching him,’ [insert Hebrew] literally, ‘like opposite him’ is found only here.  It seems to express the notion of complimentarity rather than identity.”[2]

c כל־חית השׂדה Literally, “beasts of the field.” 

dNot a literal abandoning.  The wife often joined her husband’s household. [3]


[1] See Gordon J Wenham, Genesis 1-15 (WBC 1. Dallas, Tex.: Word, 1987), 47.

[2] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 68.

[3] Wenham, Genesis 1-15, 71.

[1] See also Appendix 12 where the notes from conversations with a number of pastors on their approach to marriage counselling are included.